Baptisme : Diferéncia entre versions

1 octet suprimit ,  22 setembre de 2019
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[[Jèsus Crist|Jèsus]] se meteis foguèt batejat.<ref>{{bibleref2|Matthew|3:16}}, {{bibleref2|Mark|1:9-10}}, {{bibleref2|Luke|3:21}}</ref> La forma usuala del baptisme entre los primièrs crestians èra per lo candidat d'èsser banhat totalament o parcialament<ref>{{cite web |url= |first=Philip |last=Schaff |títol = Baptism |work=History of the Christian Church, Volume I: Apostolic Christianity. A.D. 1-100.|year=2009 |quote=The usual form of baptism was [[immersion baptism|immersion]]…. But sprinkling, also, or copious pouring rather, was practised at an early day with sick and dying persons, and in all such cases where total or partial immersion was impracticable}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |títol=Baptism |first=W. |last=Fanning |year=1907 |title = Catholic Encyclopedia |location=New York City |publisher=Robert Appleton Company |url= |quote=The most ancient form usually employed was unquestionably immersion}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= |títol=Roman Catholicism: Baptism |work=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] |year=2009 |quote=Two points of controversy still exist in modern times. One is baptism by pouring or sprinkling water on the head rather than by immersion of the entire body, even though [[immersion baptism|immersion]] was probably the biblical and early Christian rite}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |first=Adela Yarbro |last=Collins |title=The Origin of Christian Baptism |chapterurl= |editor=Maxwell E. Johnson |títol=Living Water, Sealing Spirit: Readings on Christian Initiation |publisher=Liturgical Press |location=Collegeville Township |quote= include pouring water three times onSealing Spirit: Readings on Christian Initiation |publisher=Liturgical Press |location=Collegeville Township, Stearns County, Minnesota |year=1995 |pages=35–57 |isbn=0-8146-6140-8 |oclc=31610445 |quote=The baptism of John did have certain similarities to the ritual washings at Qumran: both involved withdrawal to the desert to await the lord; both were linked to an ascetic lifestyle; both included total immersion in water; and both had an eschatological context}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |first=W. H. T. |last=Dau |title=Baptism |chapterurl= |editor=Geoffrey W. Bromiley |títol=International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D |publisher=[[William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company]] |location=[[Grand Rapids, Michigan]] |year=1979 |page=416 |isbn=0-8028-3781-6 |oclc=50333603 |quote=It is to be noted that for pouring another word ‘’(ekcheo)’’ is used, clearly showing that baptizo does not mean pour. …There is thus no doubt that early in the 2nd century some Christians felt baptism was so important that, 'when the real baptism ([[immersion baptism|immersion]]) could not be performed because of lack of water, a token pouring might be used in its place}}</ref>. Mentre que [[Joan Baptista]] fasiá servir un riu prigond per son baptisme, çò que suggerís una immersion,<ref>{{cite book |first=R. T. |last=France |authorlink=R. T. France |títol=The Gospel of Matthew |publisher=[[William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company]] |location=[[Grand Rapids, Michigan]] |year=2007 |page=[ 109] |isbn=0-8028-2501-X |oclc=122701585 |quote=The fact that he chose a permanent and deep river suggests that more than a token quantity of water was needed, and both the preposition 'in' (the Jordan) and the basic meaning of the verb 'baptize' probably indicate immersion. In v. 16 Matthew will speak of Jesus 'coming up out of the water.' The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus' head may therefore be based on later Christian practice}}</ref> las pròvas iconologicas e arqueologicas del baptisme crestian dempuèi lo sègle III indican que la forma normala èra de versar d'aiga subre la part nauta del còs de la persona que se teniá quilhada dins lo riu<ref>{{cite web |url= |first=Benjamin Breckinridge |last=Warfield |títol=The Archæology of the Mode of Baptism |quote=We may then probably assume that normal patristic baptism was by a trine immersion upon a standing catechumen, and that this immersion was completed either by lowering the candidate's head beneath the water, or (possibly more commonly) by raising the water over his head and pouring it upon it}}</ref><ref>Mentre que in some places and in certain circumstances total immersion very likely was practiced, all the evidence (and there is much more) points to baptism in most cases by partial immersion, or affusion (dunking of the head or pouring water over the head, typically when the baptizand was standing in the baptismal pool). Here the words of St. John Chrysostom might be noted: "It is as in a tomb that we immerse our heads in the water… then when we lift our heads back the new man comes forth" (''On John'' 25.2, PG 59:151). In a word, while early Christians were very attentive to symbolism relating to baptism (cf. the funerary shape of the baptistry building; the steps, typically three, for descending and rising from the font; the iconography relating to regeneration, etc.), they show few signs of preoccupation with total immersion. (Father John Erickson in ''St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly'', 41, 77 (1997), quoted in [ The Byzantine Forum])</ref><ref>{{cite book |first=John Anthony |last=McGuckin |authorlink=John Anthony McGuckin |chapter=Baptism |chapterurl= |títol=The Westminster handbook to patristic theology |publisher=Westminster John Knox Press |location=[[Louisville, Kentucky]] |year=2004 |pages=41–44 |isbn=0-664-22396-6 |oclc=52858567 |quote=Eastern tradition strongly defended the practice of three-fold immersion under the waters, but Latin practice increasingly came to use a sprinkling of water on the head (also mentioned in Didache 7 if there was not sufficient water for immersion.)}}</ref><ref name="ODWR">{{cite book |first=John |last=Bowker |authorlink=John Bowker |title=[[Oxford Dictionary of World Religions|The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions]] |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |location=[[Oxford]] |year=1999 |pages= |isbn=0-19-866242-4 |oclc=60181672}}{{pn}}</ref>. Una autra forma comuna de batisme es de versar d'aiga tres còps subre lo front de la persona.
[[Fichièr:Baptism - Marcellinus and Peter.jpg|thumb|right|150 px|Representacion d'un baptisme dins l'art crestian ]]
== Nòtas e referéncias ==
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