Lo baptisme[2], bateg, la batejada (var. bat(e)iada), batejalha, batialha (var. batielha auv.), lo batejament, batejat, batesme o la batesma (e batiau/batiòu en gascon) (del grèc βαπτίζω baptizo: « immersion », « far d'ablucions »)[3] es un acte ritual crestian, amb utilizacion d'aiga, per lo qual una persona es admesa coma sòci de la Glèisa[4].

Baptisme dels neofits per Masaccio, sègle XV, capèla Brancacci, Florença[1].

Jèsus se meteis foguèt batejat.[5] La forma usuala del baptisme entre los primièrs crestians èra per lo candidat d'èsser banhat totalament o parcialament[6][7][8][9][10]. Mentre que Joan Baptista fasiá servir un riu prigond per son baptisme, çò que suggerís una immersion,[11] las pròvas iconologicas e arqueologicas del baptisme crestian dempuèi lo sègle III indican que la forma normala èra de versar d'aiga subre la part nauta del còs de la persona que se teniá quilhada dins lo riu[12][13][14][15]. Una autra forma comuna de batisme es de versar d'aiga tres còps subre lo front de la persona.

Representacion d'un baptisme dins l'art crestian

Nòtas e referénciasModificar

  1. Cal notar qu'es un imatge de batisme per versament d'aiga subre lo front, diferent del baptisme per immersion jos l'aiga. Aqueste mòde de baptisme contunha d'èsser utilizat dins los païses de l'èst, levat pels mainatges, mas a l'oèst foguèt abandonat cap al sègle XV, e l'artista pòt aver causit una forma arcaïca per pintar lo batisme de Sant Pèire.
  2. Loís Alibèrt, lo codificaire de la lenga occitana, qu'esita dens los mots cultes entre lo tipe Bat- e lo tipe Bapt-: vejatz lo son diccionari («batisme», «batistèri», p. 149) e la soa gramatica («baptisme», «Baptista», p. 421).
  3. Modèl:Cite encyclopedia
  4. "A travèrs del baptisme sèm desliurats del pecat e tornam nàisser coma filh de Dieu; Venèm sòcis del Crist, sèm incorporats dins la Glèisa e partejam sa mission" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1213;] "Holy Baptism is the sacrament by which God adopts us as his children and makes us members of Christ's Body, the Church, and inheritors of the kingdom of God" (Book of Common Prayer, 1979, Episcopal ); "Baptism is the sacrament of initiation and incorporation into the body of Christ" (An United Methodist Understanding of Baptism); "As an initiatory rite into membership of the Family of God, baptismal candidates are symbolically purified or washed as their sins have been forgiven and washed away" (William H. Brackney, Believer's Baptism).
  5. Modèl:Bibleref2, Modèl:Bibleref2, Modèl:Bibleref2
  6. Philip Schaff, « Baptism », History of the Christian Church, Volume I: Apostolic Christianity. A.D. 1-100.,‎  : « The usual form of baptism was immersion…. But sprinkling, also, or copious pouring rather, was practised at an early day with sick and dying persons, and in all such cases where total or partial immersion was impracticable »
  7. (en) W. Fanning, Baptism, New York City, Robert Appleton Company, (legir en linha) :

    « The most ancient form usually employed was unquestionably immersion »

  8. « Roman Catholicism: Baptism », Encyclopædia Britannica,‎  : « Two points of controversy still exist in modern times. One is baptism by pouring or sprinkling water on the head rather than by immersion of the entire body, even though immersion was probably the biblical and early Christian rite »
  9. (en) Adela Yarbro Collins, Living Water, Sealing Spirit: Readings on Christian Initiation, Collegeville Township, Stearns County, Minnesota, Maxwell E. Johnson, , 35–57 p. (ISBN 0-8146-6140-8, OCLC 31610445) :

    « The baptism of John did have certain similarities to the ritual washings at Qumran: both involved withdrawal to the desert to await the lord; both were linked to an ascetic lifestyle; both included total immersion in water; and both had an eschatological context »

  10. (en) W. H. T. Dau, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, (ISBN 0-8028-3781-6, OCLC 50333603), p. 416 :

    « It is to be noted that for pouring another word ‘’(ekcheo)’’ is used, clearly showing that baptizo does not mean pour. …There is thus no doubt that early in the 2nd century some Christians felt baptism was so important that, 'when the real baptism (immersion) could not be performed because of lack of water, a token pouring might be used in its place »

  11. (en) R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, Grand Rapids, Michigan, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, (ISBN 0-8028-2501-X, OCLC 122701585), 109 :

    « The fact that he chose a permanent and deep river suggests that more than a token quantity of water was needed, and both the preposition 'in' (the Jordan) and the basic meaning of the verb 'baptize' probably indicate immersion. In v. 16 Matthew will speak of Jesus 'coming up out of the water.' The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus' head may therefore be based on later Christian practice »

  12. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, « The Archæology of the Mode of Baptism » : « We may then probably assume that normal patristic baptism was by a trine immersion upon a standing catechumen, and that this immersion was completed either by lowering the candidate's head beneath the water, or (possibly more commonly) by raising the water over his head and pouring it upon it »
  13. Mentre que in some places and in certain circumstances total immersion very likely was practiced, all the evidence (and there is much more) points to baptism in most cases by partial immersion, or affusion (dunking of the head or pouring water over the head, typically when the baptizand was standing in the baptismal pool). Here the words of St. John Chrysostom might be noted: "It is as in a tomb that we immerse our heads in the water… then when we lift our heads back the new man comes forth" (On John 25.2, PG 59:151). In a word, while early Christians were very attentive to symbolism relating to baptism (cf. the funerary shape of the baptistry building; the steps, typically three, for descending and rising from the font; the iconography relating to regeneration, etc.), they show few signs of preoccupation with total immersion. (Father John Erickson in St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly, 41, 77 (1997), quoted in The Byzantine Forum)
  14. (en) John Anthony McGuckin, The Westminster handbook to patristic theology, Louisville, Kentucky, Westminster John Knox Press, , 41–44 p. (ISBN 0-664-22396-6, OCLC 52858567), « Baptism » :

    « Eastern tradition strongly defended the practice of three-fold immersion under the waters, but Latin practice increasingly came to use a sprinkling of water on the head (also mentioned in Didache 7 if there was not sufficient water for immersion.) »

  15. (en) John Bowker, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, (ISBN 0-19-866242-4, OCLC 60181672)Modèl:Pn